The time is 6:06pm. Alex Lyazzi, a fisherman, alongside his colleagues set off from a landing site in Kigungu-Entebbe for Lake Victoria.
They travel by boat and with them, they carry fishing nets. They often lay the nets in the lake and return to land.
Later in the night, they return to the lake, haul their fishing nets with their night’s catch onto their boats, return to land and sell their fish.
Lyazzi learnt his trade from his father, who also learnt from his father.
Like Lyazzi, several fisherfolk rely on Lake Victoria to make a living. According to the paper, The status of Lake Victoria Fisheries under limited access fisheries, 219,919 fishers including fishermen, boat owners and labourers work on the lake.
The number of people that are directly and indirectly employed by the lake’s fisheries is higher. It stands at over 3 million people and includes processors, traders and others in the fisheries value chain.
ABOUT LAKE VICTORIA
Standing at a surface area of 68,800 km2, Lake Victoria is the second-largest freshwater body in the world and the largest in Africa.
The lake is shared amongst Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya with 51%, 43% and 6% of the lake being found in the above-mentioned countries respectively.
The lake performs various functions among which is provision of water, fish and employment. According to the paper, Lake Victoria’s bounty: A case for riparian countries’ blue economic investment, “The lake provides ecosystem services such as water for domestic and industrial use, transport, hydropower generation and food to over 40 million people”.
The lake also supports the largest freshwater lake fisheries in the world, with about 1 million tonnes of fish being caught annually from the lake. The total annual value of the lake’s fisheries is over USD 400 million.
Nile Perch has the highest value of about USD 400 million. It is exported to “more than 50 countries, with 60% exported to Europe.” Silverfish, also locally known as dagaa or mukene, which is traded regionally and is used both as human food and in chicken feed, has an annual value of USD 588, 680. The annual value of Tilapia is estimated at USD 34, 651.
Lake Victoria also plays socio-cultural roles with several beaches, cultural norms and others being supported by the lake.
This major lake stands to be impacted by the East African Crude Oil Pipeline (EACOP) project. First, when constructed, the pipeline will affect wetlands and watercourses in Uganda and Tanzania belonging to the Lake Victoria basin.
Modelling exercises done by scientists to determine how the lake would be impacted in case of any oil spills show that there are high risks of the lake being polluted at some points.
Specifically, a failure of the pipeline from KP300-520 in Tanzania would negatively impact the water quality of Lake Victoria, thereby affecting the lives of the people who depend on the lake to meet their water and food needs.
Furthermore, the EACOP project’s full value chain carbon emissions over 25 years are projected to be 377.6 million metric tonnes. This stands to worsen the climate change impacts on the lake.
Lake Victoria has come under pressure due to climatic changes with a decline in the lake’s water levels being seen between 2003 and 2006. The lake’s water levels also rose to the highest-ever recorded point in May 2020, attaining the 13.42 metre-mark.
Such climate-change induced impacts affect the fisheries, transport, hydropower generation, tourism and other important sectors.
Important to note is that Lake victoria is not only a critical resource for Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania but is also very essential for the livelihoods of people outside East Africa. Countries along the Nile basin such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan rely on the ecosystem services provided by River Nile, whose source is Lake Victoria. The pipeline’s proximity to the lake therefore puts millions of lives in Africa at risk.
VIOLATION OF LAWS
Because the EACOP project is impacting the Lake Victoria basin, a separate Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) determining the project’s impacts on the lake ought to have been undertaken by the project developers.
Under Articles 4,5,12, 13 and 14 of the Protocol for Sustainable Development of Lake Victoria, projects which are likely to have a significant impact on the Lake Victoria basin such as the EACOP must undertake environmental impact assessments through a process of public participation by the East African Community (EAC) Secretariat. The EIA is supposed to be approved by the EAC Council. These provisions of the protocol were violated by the EACOP project developers.
Being a critical resource for Africa, the management of Lake Victoria calls for special care and respect for all laws and treaties that have been enacted to protect the lake.
To promote the rule of law and protect Lake Victoria, four East African civil society organisations including Centre for Food and Adequate Living Rights (CEFROHT)-Uganda, Africa Institute for Energy Governance (AFIEGO)-Uganda, Natural Justice-Kenya and Centre for Strategic Litigation-Tanzania filed a court case seeking both temporary and permanent injunctions against the EACOP project.
Other reasons showing why the court case was filed can be read in this factsheet.
The case is set to be heard in Kampala on November 11, 2022.
Last week, we shared the blog, Murchison Falls National Park: Ravaged by oil and climate change.
In the blog, we discussed the unfortunate changes that the park has undergone as oil infrastructure in the park takes shape.
This week, we relate how climate change has affected the park. The impacts were narrated by a tour operator who has been visiting the park for nearly two decades.
Hippopotamuses are interesting animals. They do not have sweat glands and rely on external conditions to cool off. As such, they spend hot days in shallow water and feed at night when it is cool.
When I visited Murchison Falls National Park on July 25, 2022, I noticed something peculiar: the waters levels of River Nile, which flows through the park on its way to South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt, had increased compared to 2019 levels. The river had also burst its banks. Previously sandy and shallow areas where hippos wallowed were covered in water!
Why did the water levels of River Nile increase? On May 1, 2020, Hon. Sam Cheptoris, Uganda’s Minister for Water and Environment, addressed the country. He observed that due to heavy rainfall, the water of levels of Lake Victoria and the River Nile system had increased. The minister noted that as at April 30, 2020, the lake’s water levels had increased to 13.32 metres.
“This … rise … is only 0.08 meters away from the highest level ever recorded,” the minister said.
The minister listed the sub-sectors that would be affected by the increased water levels including hydropower stations, water transport and settlements among others.
Biodiversity and tourism were not mentioned. When I visited Murchison Falls NP on July 25, 2022, I realised that this was a great oversight. How?
Murchison falls is one of the biggest attractions in Murchison Falls NP. In the park, the Nile squeezes through an eight-metre gorge and forms the 45-metre Murchison falls. The falls are beautiful and powerful. The sound that they make is awe-inspiring.
To get a better look and feel of the falls, tourists take a waterfall boat cruise. The cruises start from two docks in the northern and southern banks of the park. Tourists decide which dock to use. The boat cruise stops about 200 metres from the bottom of the falls. At this point, the boat cannot go any further. Previously, tourists could leave the boat at this point. They would step onto a rock, view and hear the mighty falls. This rock was submerged by water and the beautiful touristic experience of getting as near to the falls as possible was taken away.
Four hundred and fifty-one (451): This is the number of registered bird species found in Murchison Falls NP. Of these, there is a curious small bird called the rock pratincole. The bird, a native African one, lives on rocks found in fast flowing rivers. The bird also breeds by laying eggs in rock depressions. Rocks are integral to the survival and well-being of these intra-African migrant birds, which feed on insects. The rock at the bottom of the Murchison Falls was an important habitat for the rock pratincole. Viewing the bird was also a pleasure for tourists. It was enthralling to see these small birds launch their flight from the rock, quickly pick flies near the falls all the while avoiding being washed away. With the rock at the bottom of the falls having been submerged, we didn’t see the rock pratincoles when I visited Murchison Falls on July 25, 2022 with tourists. Yet viewing the rock pratincole is one of the tour experiences that we widely market.
Another bird of interest in Murchison Falls NP is the red-throated bee-eater. This tropical bird is found in only 21 countries in Africa, Uganda inclusive. The bird is small and has a distinctive beautiful red throat. It feeds on bees. The bird nests/breeds near streams and rivers among others. In Uganda, the bird breeds in tall sandbanks on Lake Albert, the Kazinga channel and below Murchison Falls. Needless to say, the bird needs dry, and not flooded, conditions to breed.
In the Nyamusika plateau, nature created the perfect breeding grounds for the red throated bee-eaters and other birds. Nyamusika plateau is a clay-sandy rock that leads to Murchison Falls. The rock is soft, which enables the red-throated bee-eater and pied kingfishers to make holes (nests) in the rock and breed. Because the rock is cliff-like in nature, predators such as snakes that would eat the birds’ eggs find it hard to glide to the birds’ nests.
Unfortunately, climate change-induced flooding has affected the plateau, making it hard for the birds to nest.
Climate change has affected habitats and breeding grounds for key species in Murchison Falls NP. Ironically, oil extraction is planned in the park with trial drills expected to start this December. Burning (using) of fossil fuels is the biggest contributor to climate change.
With oil extraction in the park being planned, it can be said that the park is going to provide a resource that could kill and bury it for good.
Murchison Falls National Park (NP), one of Uganda’s oldest and largest parks, is under pressure from oil exploitation and climate change impacts.
A tour operator, who has been visiting the park since 2003, has noted changes to the park as oil exploitation infrastructure takes shape. The tour operator shared his experience with AFIEGO, which is narrated below.
On July 25, 2022, I visited Murchison Falls NP. I own a tour and travel company. Part of my work includes accompanying tourists to national parks among other tourist sites.
Because of the COVID-19 disruptions, I had gone a full year without visiting the park. When I visited on July 25, what I saw disheartened me. How?
With the tourists that I was accompanying, we entered the park through the Kichumbanyobo gate in the southern sector of the park. We drove to the park using the Masindi (Kisanja)-Park Junction Road.
This is one of the critical oil roads. It goes through the park. It is aimed at supporting TotalEnergies to extract oil from the park. Ordinary Ugandans also use the road. Particularly, travelers from Western Uganda going to West Nile use the road. Some road users have reported seeing road kill such as lizards and monkeys on the road.
Previously, the road entering the park was a dirt one. This is because not only are dirt roads better for biodiversity conservation, many tourists say that dirt roads provide the real wilderness experience they are seeking.
Previously, when one entered the park using the dirt road, one felt like they were entering a nature sanctuary. With the tarmac road however, one gets the feeling that one is going to any other place, and not a nature reserve.
Experiences are very important in tourism. If Murchison Falls NP starts to feel like any other place, and not a nature reserve, then tourism in the park, which is one of Uganda’s most visited, could be hurt.
SCENIC VIEWS COVERED
Further, previously, tourists would immediately start seeing wildlife such as baboons, black and white colobus monkeys and others when they entered through the Kichumbanyobo gate.
The monkeys are arboreal in nature and could be seen in the tree canopy over the road. However, this inter-connected canopy has been destroyed due to the Masindi (Kisanja)-Park Junction oil road. The big troops of monkeys and baboons we used to see are no more. Only a few remain.
In addition, soon after the Kichumbanyobo gate, one would bypass River Sambia, a seasonal river. The river hosts crocodiles, which we would see. Today, a bridge has been built over the river. The wildlife we used to see cannot be seen anymore as the river is covered by the bridge.
Baboons on a road inside the park. These are subject to road accidents
A bridge, which is part of the critical oil infrastructure, connecting the south and north sectors of the park has also been built. Tourism operators requested that a suspended bridge be built. However, we were told that this bridge would be too weak.
I think a sturdier bridge to transport oil rigs, which are heavy, was needed. This bridge has eased transport between the two sectors. However, it has killed the ferry experience. Before, we would connect from the north to the south sector using a ferry. This allowed us to see scenic views of River Nile.
WATERFALL BOAT CRUISE
The waterfall boat cruise is a popular activity in the national park. The boat cruise starts from the Paraa dock and ends at the bottom of the falls.
The scenic distance between those two points is 17km. The boat ride used to take two hours. The boat captain used to ride slowly so that tourists could see the hippopotamuses, crocodiles, elephants, water birds and other biodiversity.
Because of the increased water levels of River Nile, attributed to climate change, the shallow areas where hippopotamuses used to wallow are no more. Fewer hippopotamuses can therefore be found trying to wallow in the North bank, which was the best viewing place for hippopotamuses.
Further, on the shores of River Nile in the North bank, crocodiles used to be seen sunbathing. They would open their mouths to cool off. However, the river bank on which they used to sunbathe was flooded due to climate change impacts. The crocodiles now hide in the thickets on the river bank, making them harder to see.
Some of the impacts of road construction in Murchsion Falls NP can be seen in the pictorial below.
In part 2 on Thursday next week, we will show the other changes to the park. If no action is taken to address the oil exploitation and climate change impacts, the park may lose its alluring features, hurting tourism.
Tourism is a billion-dollar industry in Uganda. The sector earned Uganda $.16 billion at one point. The sector also employs over 667,600 people. Being one of the largest and most visited Ugandan parks, Murchison Falls is not only important for conservation but for the survival of tourism.
As the world marks International Literacy Day today –September 8, 2016-, we take a look at the dismal state of education in the oil region, focusing on how oil activities are further harming education.
Sixteen-year old Catherine Nyayenga does not want the events from the last school term to ever replay themselves in her life again.
Until 2012, her thirst for education was ably quenched by her hardworking parents and teachers.
Her parents practiced farming from which they paid her school fees while her teachers gave her the knowledge she requires to achieve her dream of becoming a doctor.
She was a good and curious student, soaking in the knowledge provided by her teachers and probing for answers on topics she did not understand. She was determined to do well and become a doctor.
Then government acquired 29 sq. km of land in Kabaale-Buseruka, Hoima district for a refinery. Her father’s land was part of the land that was acquired.
Government set a CUT-OFF date of June 2, 2012 meaning that property that was put up after the cut-off date would not be compensated.
Economic activity in the refinery area stalled. Nyayenga’s father’s fortunes dwindled. He increasingly found it hard to pay her school fees culminating into her missing her Mock exams last term.
Today, Nyayenga who is a student at Central High School in Hoima, has been turned into a beggar who asks for money so as to stay in school. AFIEGO offered her some.
It is important to however note that it is unsustainable to educate all the pupils and students whose education has been negatively affected by the refinery project.
As we have previously told you, education in the refinery area has been direly compromised.
The two primary schools, Nyahaira P/S and Kyapaloni P/S, collapsed living thousands of pupils without education. Government has left these pupils without education since 2012!
Access to education for children outside the refinery area is also difficult. Buseruka sub-county has only one secondary school, Buseruka secondary school.
“After completing P.7, our children drop out because the distance from Kaiso to Kabaale is too long. The boys become fishermen while the girls get married. Some become prostitutes at the landing site [on Lake Albert],” Mr. Henry Irumba, the L.C.1 Councillor of Kaiso landing site, which is located in Tonya parish, Buserka sub-county, says.
He appeals to government and oil companies such as Tullow Oil to construct secondary schools in Tonya parish; Buseruka Secondary School is in Kabaale parish, which is 26.6 Km from Tonya.
Mr. Vincent Opio, a leader in Buseruka sub-county, also says that in addition to urgently returning refinery-affected pupils to school, more secondary schools are needed.
“How can Uganda say that it is aspiring towards local participation in the oil sector and for middle income status when it has failed to provide education for the refinery-affected pupils for over four years?
The pupils should be returned to school. We also need more secondary schools,” Mr. Opio says.
Reporting by Sandra Atusinguza
Field Officer, AFIEGO
Following the oil cash bonanza involving Uganda Revenue Authority bosses together with a host of top government officials, President Museveni has reportedly described the oil cash bonus beneficiaries as ‘heroes’ and explained that the payment was made in good faith to appreciate their effort in the successful arbitration cases that led to the government’s recovery of about $700 million as capital gains tax.
Following petitions by AFIEGO and the Oil Refinery Residents Association (ORRA) to the police in Hoima including the RDC, Regional Police Commander (RPC) and Deputy Police Commander (DPC), the cattle keepers who had illegally settled in the refinery area and had become a source of conflict and security threats were removed from the area.
On Saturday June 10, 2017, police started on operations to remove the cattle keepers and by Monday June 12, they had all left.
“The cattle keepers were disturbing us. Their animals used to eat our food [crops] which are our only means of survival as government stopped us from growing perennial cash crops when it placed a cut-off date of June 2, 2012 for properties it would compensate.